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To retrieve the “last” five items in a queryset, you could do this:

Note that this is not quite the same as slicing from the end of a sequence in Python. The above example will return the last item first, then the penultimate item and so on. If we had a Python sequence and looked at seq[-5:] , we would see the fifth-last item first. Django doesn’t support that mode of access (slicing from the end), because it’s not possible to do it efficiently in SQL.

Also, note that reverse() should generally only be called on a QuerySet which has a defined ordering (e.g., when querying against a model which defines a default ordering, or when using order_by() ). If no such ordering is defined for a given QuerySet , calling reverse() on it has no real effect (the ordering was undefined prior to calling reverse() , and will remain undefined afterward).

Returns a new QuerySet that uses SELECT DISTINCT in its SQL query. This eliminates duplicate rows from the query results.

By default, a QuerySet will not eliminate duplicate rows. In practice, this is rarely a problem, because simple queries such as Blog.objects.all() don’t introduce the possibility of duplicate result rows. However, if your query spans multiple tables, it’s possible to get duplicate results when a QuerySet is evaluated. That’s when you’d use distinct() .


Any fields used in an Men canvas casual shoes blue/white color breathable and comfortable lace up front style round toe 2015 season popular model Outlet Free Shipping Authentic nOoS73Nw
call are included in the SQL columns. This can sometimes lead to unexpected results when used in conjunction with . If you order by fields from a related model, those fields will be added to the selected columns and they may make otherwise duplicate rows appear to be distinct. Since the extra columns don’t appear in the returned results (they are only there to support ordering), it sometimes looks like non-distinct results are being returned.

Similarly, if you use a Custom high quality footwear wholesale mens shoes athletic shoes Low Shipping Fee qLFs1Z
query to restrict the columns selected, the columns used in any (or default model ordering) will still be involved and may affect uniqueness of the results.

The moral here is that if you are using be careful about ordering by related models. Similarly, when using and together, be careful when ordering by fields not in the call.

On PostgreSQL only, you can pass positional arguments ( *fields ) in order to specify the names of fields to which the DISTINCT should apply. This translates to a SELECT DISTINCT ON SQL query. Here’s the difference. For a normal distinct() call, the database compares each field in each row when determining which rows are distinct. For a distinct() call with specified field names, the database will only compare the specified field names.

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Send custom user attributes to Intercom
Create and track custom data that matters to your business
Written by Ruairí Galavan Updated over a week ago

Intercom lets you create and track custom data attributes about your customers, based on criteria that’s specific to your business.

You can use this data to filter and create customer segments, and to send targeted messages and campaigns. You can also use it as ‘qualification data’ to qualify leads and trial users.

What’s a data attribute?

A data attribute tracks facts about your customers — like the plan someone is on, or when they signed up — as opposed to 2018 ladies fashion dresses with pictures women dresses summer Cheap Sale New Arrival Cheap Sale Choice vNGZ9Zwy
, which tracks recurring customer actions .

Here’s an example: if your product is a project management tool, you could track data about the number of files each user has. Then, if you want to message users who haven’t started adding files to the tool and might need some help onboarding, you could set up a message targeted to users with "files less than 1".

The most common data attributes set up on Intercom are about customer development, such as:

Note: If you create more than 100 custom data attributes, it could degrade your performance. There’s a limit of 250 custom data attributes per app.

You can do this anytime by adding additional key/value pairs to your intercomSettings code snippet. (The key is the attribute name; the value is a placeholder for the data you’ll track).

Once you add your custom key/value pairs, Intercom will regularly ping to see if the values have updated.

Double check that your keys always have a JSON-valid value that is a string (text), number, or boolean (true or false). That means using double quotes around text strings and sending NULL to cater for cases when no value exists for a user.

You can also send us dates or URLs. You can track URLs as a text string, e.g. " http://www.google.com ". Intercom will recognize this and automatically turn it into a hyperlink. Track dates by sending us 2018 autumn and winter new women long sweater Vneck long sleeve backing dress Discount Perfect JGWQEjC6
. If you create a key name that ends with “_at” we'll automatically treat it as a date rather than a number (see "last_order_at" below).

Here are some examples of data attribute key and value pairs:

Once you’ve updated your code snippet and started tracking the data, you should:

Qualification data is a special set of attributes you can manually update in your customer profiles as you qualify them. You can set these up via a simple form in Intercom. If you intend to update this data manually, you don’t need to do anything else.

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